Orthopedics is the branch of medicine that studies musculoskeletal system disorders.
Areas of Interest of Orthopedics
The knee is the joint with which we experience problems the most. The reasons for this is can be explained as that it is exposed to higher load compared to other joints, two of the longest bones in our body make a joint, and its robustness is only provided by soft tissues. Cartilage tissue damage, a tear in the meniscus, ligament rupture impair knee health, resulting in pain, swelling, snags, lock in the knee.
Areas of Interest of Knee Surgery
- Around Knee Sports Injuries
- Fractures Around Knee
- Surgery for Knee Ligaments
- Knee Cartilage Surgery , Production and Transfer of Cartilage
- Meniscus Surgery, Repairs, Implants and Transplants
- Knee Surface Coating Prostheses, Partial Prostheses and Total Prostheses
- Ordination Disorders Corrective Surgery
Foot and Ankle Surgery
We have 30 joints in each of our feet and while walking, our feet bear approximately 2-3 times of our body weight, and 7 times while running. The relationship of these bones with each other deteriorate over time, even if there is no external interference.
Areas of Interest of Foot and Ankle Surgery
- Flatfoot and stepping disorders
- Foot and ankle deformities
- Big toe and toe problems
- Bone spurs
- Bone cysts
- Sports injuries
- Traumatology (heel fractures , leg fractures , ankle fractures )
- Ilizarov surgery ( bone lengthening, bone union , deformity correction )
Hip joint as well as pelvis, in which this joint is located, play an efficient role in actions of healthy standing, walking and running. Patients often encounter problems such as pain in groin speading to inner surface of thigh, swelling, limping and limited joint mobility in the presence of infections, osteoporosis, tumors, and fractures and dislocations caused by unhealthy development of hip joint as from birth or those acquired in later stages of life. Posture disorder, limping, leg length discrepancies, limited joint mobility, pain and tenderness around thigh are conditions which must be examined.
Areas of Interest of Hip Surgery
- Dislocation of the Hip (Adult and Child)
- Hip Joint Cartilage Problems
- Bone and Joint Infections
- Fractures and Dislocations
- Sports Injuries
Shoulder is one of the most comprehensive areas of orthopedics and can be an important source of problems in especially athletes and old age groups. Shoulder is an important joint which positions our hands for us to use them in any manner around us. Shoulder region is made up of three major bones. Ligaments, muscles and tendons allow bonding to each other and mobility of bones. Forced repetitive activities , accidents, sports activities containing technical errors start wearing process in these structures forming the joint. Wear may result in pain, limited activity in the short term and calcification in the long term.
Areas of Interest of Shoulder Surgery
- Shoulder Dislocation
- Fractures around the shoulder
- Arthritis of the Shoulder Joint
- Rotator cuff tears – Impingement Syndrome
- Joint Dislocations
- Joint Degeneration
- Tendon Problems
- Frozen Shoulder
- Calcified Tendonitis
Hand and Wrist Surgery
Basic topics of hand surgery comprise any type of injuries, illnesses and problems associated with the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, tendons, nerves and bones in the region extending from fingertips up to the shoulder.
Areas of Interest of Hand and Wrist Surgery
- Hand fractures and dislocations
- Muscle and tendon tears
- Severe injury of a limb or severed limb
- Any Congenital Deficiencies, Disorders, Adhesions
- Stroke Due to a Cut Nerve or Function Loss Due to Circulatory Disorder
- Poor union or Malunion of Fractures and Disclocations
It is concerned with congenital or acquired curvatures in the spine( scoliosis), humpback and degenerative problems(calcification-dependent) resulting from aging of the spine, humpback and fractures caused by osteoporosis, spinal injuries due to accidents, spinal infections, and spinal tumors.
In the department of spine surgery, orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons work together. Physicians specializing in physical therapy get involved in therapeutical stages of problems such as curvature of the spine, spinal fractures and injuries.
Scoliosis is the general name given to the curvature of the spine to the right or to the left. Scoliosis usually displays no symptoms in the early stage; as it advances, the following symptoms occur:
- One shoulder higher than the other is one of the most common symptoms. One shoulder blade can be higher or more pronounced than the other.
- When arms dangle on both sides, presence of more space between the arm and the body on one side is one of the symptoms.
- One hip can be higher or more pronounced than the other.
- When the patient is viewed from behind and is asked to bend forward until his spine becomes parallel to the floor, one side of his back can look higher than the other and it may look as if he has a hunch.
Scoliosis is a disease that threatens the future of children growing. A high rate of success in the treatment of the disease can be achieved if it is detected at an early stage. However, if curvature of the spine that can not be diagnosed in time has proceeded, this prevents normal development of children. In adulthood , waist and back pains, heart and lung function abnormalities are seen.
Although scoliosis treatment varies depending on the type and size of scoliosis, the most common treatment options include:
- Observation: Only observation and check at regular intervals is adequate for patients with a curve below 20 degrees whose skeletal development is close to completion. Observation continues until his skeletal system development is completed.
- Corset Treatment: The purpose of corset treatment is to try to hinder increase of the curve. Corset is especially effective on children with a curve above 25 degrees whose growth still continues.
- Surgical Treatment: Surgery is inevitable for children with a curve of 50 degrees who still grow. Curves above 50 degrees continue to increase after growth is completed.
In case of a bone tumor, the growing tumor spreads to healthy tissues, causes replacement of healthy tissues with abnormal tissues and weakens the bone, resulting in pathological factures. Cause of most bone tumors is unknown. If necessary, precautions are not taken, they may cause functional failure in the organ system in which they develop, and even death.
Most bone tumors are benign and benign tumors don’t threaten life. Malignant tumors may spread through body, causing metastases. A cancer developing in a bone (primary) is different from a cancer developing in another part of the body and settling in the bone(secondary).
Type and stage of tumor determines treatment of malignant bone cancers. Surgical treatment may simply involve either removal of a tumor or removal of tumor tissue along with the surrounding healthy tissue. During treatment, radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be applied in combination with other treatment methods.
Soft Tissue Tumors
Soft tissue is the name given to non-skeletal tissue surrounding various anatomical structures. Soft tissue comprises about 50% of body weight.
They often don’t show any symptoms. However, loss of appetite, fever, and weight loss are among the symptoms that can be seen.
While radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used in the treatment, exact solution can be achieved by surgical intervention.